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Bioelectrical Impedance of the Human Thorax Simulation Software using Three Dimensional Models

Technology #z05175

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Cross section of human thorax used to place electrodesElectrical three dimensional human body modelMid-thoracic transverse view of current density
Robert Patterson, PhD
Professor Emeritus, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Minnesota
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Managed By
Andrew Morrow
Technology Licensing Officer
The contribution of the lungs to thoracic impedance measurements: a simulation study based on a high resolution finite difference model
Physiological Measurement, June 26, 2007

High Resolution of Anatomical Details

A three dimensional human thorax software package for impedance simulation, ZMIND, provides effective ways to determine bioelectrical current patterns and impedance measurements between various electrode combinations. The 3D human thorax simulation model is constructed based on actual human MRI scans. Up to 36 tissue types were identified and included in the model, providing high-resolution anatomical details in the heart and lung regions. The software can be used to design electrocardiographic, pacemaker, and defibrillation devices.

MN-IP Try and Buy
  • Trial period of 6 to 12 months. $5000/6 months.
  • Fee waived for MN-based companies or if sponsoring $50,000+ in research.
  • Non-exclusive license for a $30,000 conversion payment.
  • No patent costs.
  • No royalty fees.

** Contact Andrew Morrow for more information.

Anatomically Accurate 3D Electrical Model of the Human Thorax

To help determine the electrical currents to be provided by medical devices, the software gives the current pathways, along with the current densities and voltage gradients in the tissues of interest and in other tissues that may be influenced. Existing human body models have low-resolution anatomical details and a poor representation of anatomical variability of the thorax. ZMIND is an anatomically accurate 3D electrical model of the human thorax, based on actual MRI data. The software allows users to interactively insert virtual electrodes of any shape into the images of the segmented thorax model. Users can measure transfer impedance and perform sensitivity analysis to determine the contribution of various regions to the total measured impedance. The model includes 36 identified tissue types and each tissue is assigned an appropriate electrical conductivity, allowing more accurate simulation of small electrodes that are commonly used in pacing and defibrillation clinical practices. The three dimensional human body model can be used for optimizing defibrillation efficacy, monitoring pulmonary edema, and assessing pacing lead configuration.


  • Anatomically accurate 3D human body model
  • Virtual-human experiment for impedance test
  • Interactive electrode placement in any area of 3D human thorax
  • 36 identified tissues provide highly accurate simulation